To diverge momentarily, in recent years Crone has modified her position somewhat with regard to the Islamic sources. She hears a voice and then sees an angel at the place of Zamzam digging a hole in the ground until water flows. Kath r more obvious, thus confirming the assumption that Sa d b. In other words, the question remains whether the results corroborated by the data according to one researcher are the only possible ones to be deduced from these data. Two extreme positions have emerged.
WE DEFEND ISLAM
For an revised German version see no. Schoeler, advocate testing the historical value of these three types of information by means of concrete examinations. Otherwise, they risk spending their time criticising competing or alternative methods. If the Prophet of God said it, it must be true. His mother had already died earlier.
Rowson, Encylopaedia of Islam, Third Edition, vol. University of California Press, pp. English translation of no. In addition, some scholars, for diverse reasons, year reject radi- cal scepticism and try to tread a path between the two extremes.
- In this context, it is investigated whether all Orientalists share the same position in terms of their approach to the literature.
- Azami attempts to tackle all three in great detail, of which we will summarise here and offer our opinions of its strengths and weaknesses.
- Therefore, when categorising researchers depending on their results, their general results should be taken into consideration.
- The three studies in this theme issue demonstrate that the current generation of scholars is increasingly occupied with the question of appropriate methods for dating traditions.
They have developed and tested methods that make it possible in specific cases to determine more closely the historical value of the three source types. Not surprisingly, he did not provide any evidence for such a claim. They treat statements in the sources on the early period as back-projections of later circumstances and ideas. Despite his efforts, later critiques have shown his methodology to be based on generalizations and at times a misuse of the texts. She consents on the condition that he not dismount.
Jubayr, including al- abar himself, could have shortened the ending. In light of the discussed differences between Schacht, Juynboll and Schoeler, it could be stated that researchers who apply the same method can reach different results. Journal of Hadith Studies.
Is Hubal The Same As Allah PART 4
Yet a small problem remains to be solved. Alukah is a rich, cultural website supervised by Dr. By applying this method to a single tradition encountered in different sources, they attempt to identify the disseminator or orig- inator of the report in question, i.
Thus it would be very difficult to argue that Arabic had received the word or name by either the Palmyrene route, let alone why it had been given an Ancient North Arabian definite article. Other scholars like Gregor Schoeler have adopted a similar method. If Ibn Jurayj was forging traditions, he would hardly add an anonymous figure to the chain which in fact would weaken his transmission. Turkish translation of no. After first summarizing earlier attempts by D.
Schacht struggles to answer these questions and when he does, which is rarely as pointed out by Maghen, the evidence does not stack up. Islamic legal interpretation. Ibn Jurayj was a Meccan scholar and contemporary of Ma mar. The most comprehensive of them is by M. Was it from foreign influence or from pre-Islamic customary law?
He then uses biographical information, according to which Ibn Jurayj studied for a long time with these two Meccan scholars, to support his conclusion. Conclusions Hubal is not Allah. It is as we were relating. The three positions within this paradigm differ in degree not in kind. Journal of Hadith Studies, kenya Vol.
Er gleich dem Allah Muhammeds wie die altgermanischen u. The two names are also remarkable. Finally, the methodology of the critique of the two authors will be compared. Hoyland for stimulating discussions on ancient North Arabian and ancient South Arabian epigraphies. This is a good thing, celebrity as there can be no scientific progress without criticism.
Methods of Dating Early Legal Traditions (Theme Issue)
He concludes that the kernel of the Midrash Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer is older than commonly assumed, dating back to pre-Islamic times, and that the Islamic elements were added later. In this regard, this study reveals that not only Muslims but also Orientalists share some common assumptions. This group includes born Muslims, like M.
He only skips the introduction, which relates why Sa d b. Secondary sources Anthony, S. In other cases, however, the distribution is similar. As for some of the methods and conclusions set out by Goldziher, then they are highly dubious.
He was convinced that the Muslim traditions generally came into being only by fabrication. It contains traditions that Abd al-Malik b. Unfortunately, most traditions do not have that number. Unlike Goldziher, babylon he dated all legal traditions later than A. Historiography respects none save objective historical standards and can enter into no alliances.
His people are united by a new calendar i. He sees the date of death of the real common link as a date post quem for the relevant tradition. Turkish translation in no. Schacht held that the traditions ascribed to the Prophet and to his Companions are to be regarded as generally fictive, and the traditions of the Successors largely inauthentic.
- Likewise we can do the same for many other traditions.
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Serjeant was formerly Professor of Arabic at the University of Cambridge. It is important for the objective of this study to adopt a holistic methodological perspective to determine the premises at the root of these two reconstructions. Furthermore, a connection via Moab, a possible source of Hubal at Makkah, is far too flimsy. The sources for early Islam contain several types of information.
We have seen two different styles of critiques in Azami and Motzki. This work led to a series of writings between Harald Motzki and Herbert Berg, and hence it illuminates the nature of Western studies more. His focus is on dating the traditions and to apply a method which is more consistent and more scientific than, what Motzki considers, the over generalisations of Schacht and Azami. For a recent overview of dating Muslim traditions see H.
For further references dealing with the subject one is advised to consult this thesis. We must therefore look elsewhere for a widespread theological discussion. He calls to mind that this does not apply only to Islamic traditions and does not mean that this material is without value. Close scrutiny of the transmissions ascribed by Ibn Jurayj to these two scholars suggests that the ascriptions are not bogus and that he did in fact transmit what he learned from his two teachers. To Shannon the amount of information is a measure of surprise and is closely related to the chance of one of several messages being transmitted.
Dating Muslim Traditions A Survey
And if the narrative indeed predates that collection, then how far back can we trace it? In light of the previous discussion, it should be noted that in the final analysis both revisionist and middle-ground Orientalists work within the Orientalist paradigm. Another reference frequently utilised by the missionaries stating Hubal was a moon god is from C. Presumably, this redundancy is used by us to improve our ability to recognize messages reliably and to communicate different types of information. Margoliouth, Henri Lammens and Leon Caetani.